While the concept of thermal expansion is well understood among architects and engineers, occasionally there are problems relating to insufficient thermal expansion allowances.
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Thermal conductivity of architectural metals used to clad the exteriors of buildings is a significant factor in energy efficiency. The purpose of insulating materials is to limit the transfer of heat in or out of the structures, so as to maintain a comfortable temperature at a reasonable cost.
Metal flatness is a big issue in architectural panel work. If the incoming material has errant shape, the panel manufacturer or fabricator cannot avoid producing a panel that exhibits oil canning (repeating undulations in the panel surface), concave or convex profiles or that buckles at the corners.